Author Archives: The Madison InfoShop

This Labor Day Don’t Forget Those Working Behind Bars – The Dirty Underbelly of the U.S. Prison Labor Industrial Complex

By: John E. Peck, Madison Infoshop (IWW I.U. 620)

This summer tv screens have been dominated by heroic images of firefighters battling blazes in California and elsewhere. The mass media largely ignored that these wild fires are a deadly consequence of climate change. Unbeknownst to many, as well, is the fact that over 2000 inmates (including 50 youth offenders) are among the ranks of the firefighters on the frontline, risking life and limb to save others, even as they prepared to head back to their own cells. A CA state official was caught bragging that this move saved taxpayers $100 million per year since the inmates are only paid $1 per hour (plus $2 per day) with the possibility of mandatory 72 hour shifts.

On Aug. 23rd prisoners in 17 states across the U.S. launched a nation-wide strike demanding an end to prison slavery, poor living conditions, and death by incarceration. Organized by Jailhouse Lawyers Speak and the IWW’s own Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee (IWOC), among others, the strike began on the anniversary of the death of George Jackson and is expected to last until the anniversary of the Attica Prison Uprising. The strike was called in response to the death of seven inmates and a prison-wide lockdown resulting from inhumane conditions at Lee Correctional Institution in South Carolina in April. A similar nationwide prison strike in 2016 that began at Holman Prison in AL quickly spread to involve 24,000 inmates in 24 states.

The Food Chain Workers Alliance is among a growing group of allies in this most recent strike, in part because prisoners are exploited by agribusiness when other labor is not available. For example, when Colorado cracked down on undocumented migrant farmworkers, guess who was tapped to pick produce instead? Minimum-security female prisoners from the La Vista Correctional Facility in Pueblo, CO were outsourced to hoe and weed fields of cabbages, onions, and melons for $4 per hour (though the farmers paid the state $9.60 per hour for their labor). Over 30.000 inmates work in the nation’s food service sector, which is already notorious for lousy wages and oppressive working conditions. Would you like some more abuse with your side of fries?

As Azurra Crispino, cofounder of the Prison Abolition Prisoner Support(PAPS), another supporter of the latest strike, noted, “The reason prisons exist is not to keep anyone safe — but because money gets made from prisons. So they’re saying, look, if the reason you have us locked up is because we make you a ton of money, then if we strike and you give us minimum wage, we won’t make you a ton of money anymore. And that will ultimately lead to reform for decarceration and prison abolition.”

This reality is hardly lost on prisoners themselves. To quote one WI inmate’s letter printed in IWOC’s Sept. 2016 Voices from Behind Wisconsin Prison Gates newsletter: “The State of Wisconsin has capitalized off of incarcerating inmates—this includes the county jails, the courts and the prisons. It is no secret that D.O.C. is a billion dollar business—we are an assembly line to them… The prisons would cease to function without the collective effort of the inmates. If all the inmates refused to work statewide, the WI prison system would die.”

One of the key demands of the current prison strike is that all those imprisoned in the US. be paid the prevailing wage in their current state or territory for their labor. Contrary to popular belief, prisoners are not paid minimum wage for their work while incarcerated, and this cheap docile labor force is conveniently exploited by corporations to undercut unions, labor rules, and other regulations to obtain an advantage in the “free market.”. Ever wonder why Starbucks, or McDonalds, or Whole Foods or AT&T can be so profitable – perhaps it is because they exploit prisoners at less than $2 per hour to bag their coffee, make their uniforms, raise tilapia, or answer service calls… On average, prison wages have declined nationally over the last fifteen years – from an average daily wage of $4.73 in 2001 to $3.45 in 2017 – and in several states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, and Texas) inmates are often paid nothing for their work. Sounds a lot like modern day slavery…

After the horrific Deepwater Horizon oil spill in April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, BP naturally turned to prison labor as a cheap source of clean-up help. Known as “the inmate state,” Louisiana has the highest rate of incarceration in the U.S. with 70% of its inmates being African-American men. Since the state only has beds for half of its inmates, it makes sense to outsource them to private companies like BP which pay them at most forty cents an hour. Under the federal Work Opportunity Tax Credit, private-sector employers get $2,400 for every work release inmate they hire. On top of that, they can earn back up to 40 percent of the wages they pay annually to “target group workers.”

Here in Wisconsin we have over 20,000 inmates (twice as many at MN which has a comparable overall population and crime rate) in nearly 40 facilities that cost taxpayers $1 billion+ year to operate, more than the entire state budget devoted to the UW college system. When Waupun was established in the 1850s, the state’s oldest prison, it was constructed with prison labor by legislative decree. Legend has it that the first WI inmates literally built their own cells and then walked inside and shut the doors. Today, inmates at Waupun milk cows for the state, earning from 50 cents to $1.50 per hour. Last year, Wisconsin’s three prison dairies alone earned taxpayers more than $5 million – you can savor their hard work next time you enjoy a Babcock Hall ice cream cone at UW-Madison. Over 1600 WI inmates actually pay the state $740 per month for the privilege of being in work release programs.

Badger State industries was established in 1913 as a means to outsource WI prison labor to the private sector. There are now 11 operations in 10 state prisons using inmate labor to do everything from printing and making furniture to recycling and license plates. Many local governments are following the DOC example. For instance, Racine County intends to outsource all of its landscaping, painting, and snow shoveling jobs that used to be done by unionized workers to its prisoners.

Some have argued that employing prison labor provides valuable vocational skills that will be useful once inmates re-enter society. This ignores the fact that many of them face such long sentences they will never enjoy the freedom to utilize the supposed job skills they gained. Others, because of their criminal record, have few good options once they get out – many of the prisoners fighting fires in CA can’t even be hired to do the same job as civilians.

For those involved in the contemporary prison abolition movement, the struggle that began over 150 years ago to end slavery is still ongoing. Genocidal conquest and violent industrialization – the bloody hallmarks of the U.S. “success story” – could not have occurred without the capitalist exploitation of forced labor – both slaves and prisoners. My own ancestors who came to the U.S. as undocumented immigrants fleeing a neocolonial 19th century “famine” in Ireland were unwitting victims of this imperial project. If they had not come as indentured servants, they could just as easily have come as convict chattel. Over 50,000 prisoners were used to originally colonize Virginia and Maryland alone.

Today the US imprisons five times as many people per capita as any other industrialized country – well over 2.3 million are now trapped as human cogs running the machine of our prison labor industrial complex. Those who have seen the movie 13th will know quite well that slavery has persisted in the U.S. long after the Emancipation Declaration issued by Pres. Lincoln during the Civil War. Forced labor is still allowed under the 13th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution “as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” As we celebrate Labor Day amidst a nationwide prison strike, let us not forget all those behind bars who have little or no choice about whether or not they will ever get to enjoy the fruits of their own labor.

For more info, visit: https://incarceratedworkers.org/

Advertisements

Thurs. June 14th – Sat. June 16th Madison, WI Radical Perspectives on the ’60s and Beyond: Teach-In & Intergenerational Dialogue!

Timed to complement the sold-out Madison Reunion, this free event is modeled after the Teach-Ins of the 1960s. Radical Perspectives brings together many former and current Madison activists to investigate what happened in the ’60s, how it came down in the ’70s, and what needs to happen now to carry Radical Left initiatives forward. We are questioning our very culture—its government deceit, corporate-capitalist exploitation, environmental degradation, and antisocial behavior—triggers of ’60s activism all of which continue today. These returning radicals are coming with the express purpose of engaging in a dialogue with younger activists.

Events include:

Thurs. June 14th 6:30 pm Madison Central Library (201 W. Mifflin) The Living Legacy of The Sixties

Fri. June 15th 11:30 am UW-Madison’s Library Mall Rally for the People, Peace and the Planet! Followed by a Noon March to the State Capitol and Send Off of the Building Unity Bus Tour at 12:45 pm! Madison in the ‘60s was a center of opposition to injustice and inequality at home and the murderous Vietnam War… People in the streets made a difference then and that activist spirit is still alive today! Build a united movement to say “No” to racism and war, militarism and violence, and the destruction of Earth, and “Yes!” to democracy, all human rights (women, LGBTQ+, workers, immigrants, etc.) and the rights of all living beings to exist in a healthy and sustainable world!

Fri. June 15th 6:00 pm A Room of One’s Own Bookstore (315 W. Gorham) Authors’ Talk & Radical Welcome! Among the authors presenting will be Max Elbaum reading from his Revolution in the Air: Sixties Radicals Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che.

Sat. June 16th 9:00 am – 7:30 pm UW-Madison, Union South (1308 W. Dayton St.) Radical Perspectives on the ‘60s and Beyond Teach-In! More than a dozen panel discussions plus hospitality, activist book sale, and more. Some panels take a historical focus, while others look forward. A partial list includes: Vietnam Anti-War Movement (2 parts): 1965-69 and 1970-72; Women Unmasking Power & Building Movements; High School Activism in the ’60s; Art as Activism; The UW Black Strike of 1969; Environmental Activism Today; Anti-Racism Activism Today; High School Activism Today; and
the New Left’s Radical Legacy For Today

Sponsors include the UW Odyssey Project, the Gray Panthers–Madison Chapter, Peregrine Forum, Madison Infoshop Free Skool, and Madison Industrial Workers of the World.

In the true sixties spirit, all events are free – however, donations will be appreciated.

For more info, visit the Facebook event: https://www.facebook.com/events/1315861041890667/


Print and Resist 2018! – Sat. April 28th @ Madison’s Central Library

IMG_0503

This year Madison Print & Resist will be on April 28th from 11 am – 4:30 pm, once again, on the lovely third floor of the (downtown) Madison Public Library.

This is one of the Midwest’s largest gatherings of DIY print makers, zinesters, and graphic artists! Info? https://madisonprintandresist.wordpress.com/

 


Fall 2017 Madison Free Skool Series on Non-Violent Struggle and Direct Action!

Tue. Dec. 19th 6:30 pm  Wil-Mar Center (953 Jenifer St.)  Screening of Un Poquito de Tanta Verdad/A Little Bit of So Much Truth – the 2007 documentary about the popular uprising in Oaxaca. When a broad-based, non-violent, popular uprising exploded in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca, some compared it to the Paris Commune, while others called it the first Latin American revolution of the 21st century. But it was the people’s use of the media that truly made history in Oaxaca. A Little Bit of So Much Truth captures the unprecedented media phenomenon that emerged when tens of thousands of school teachers, housewives, indigenous communities, health workers, farmers, and students took over fourteen radio stations and one TV station into their own hands, using them to organize, mobilize, and ultimately defend their grassroots struggle for justice.


Beyond Marching: Grassroots Resistance for Troubled Times!

faceoffstandingrockTues. May 2nd 6:30 pm – 8:30 pm Christ Presbyterian Church (944 E. Gorham)

Beyond Marching: Grassroots Resistance for Troubled Times!

Sixth session in a spring 2017 series hosted by the Madison Free Skool, Madison IWW, Young Gifted and Black, and the Peregrine Forum. Join us to discuss nonviolent direct action, including theory, historical examples, and relevance to our current situation. This session will continue exploring concepts in Gene Sharp’s activist handbook: How Nonviolent Struggle Works http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/How-Nonviolent-Struggle-Works.pdf This session we will specifically be discussing the tactics of boycotts and strikes, looking at the 1960s United Farm Workers Grape Strike and Boycott (chapter 14 in Sharp’s larger Waging Nonviolent Struggle book) and the 1933 WI Milk Strike (for a reading on that, check out: http://content.wisconsinhistory.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/wmh/id/18916/show/18864

Paper copies of all suggested readings are available in the front window at Lakeside Press (1334 Williamson St.). You are also welcome to bring a dish/snack to share. Please share the Facebook event with others: https://www.facebook.com/events/308394812914280/ For more info, visit: https://madinfoshop.wordpress.com/ or call #284-9082

 


Madison Infoshop is Moving! New Home as of Nov. 2016 is at 1202 Williamson St. #106

gow2_wide-b0b52bdeb765cb65cf87c6fa9fa8df110eea72a0-s900-c85The Madison Infoshop will be relocating to 1202 Williamson St. #106 (within the Social Justice Center) beginning in early Nov. 2016 – thanks to a new collaboration with Madison Community Cooperative!   After decades of serving the community, Rainbow Bookstore Cooperative will be closing (another victim of gentrification and amazonification), but many of the projects Rainbow supported for so many years will still endure and thrive thanks to new friends!  We are still in the process of relocating our free lending library, zine archive, and other wonderful community activist resources, but stay tuned for updates and join us for an open house once we have settled into our new space!  We are also interested in jumpstarting our volunteer collective, so if you are interested in participating please let us know.  The Madison Infoshop is YOUR space for changing the world!  Come be part of this amazing tranformation!


Another World Is Possible! Spring 2016 Discussion Series hosted by the Madison Free Skool, the Peregrine Forum, the Madison Infoshop and the IWW Social Action & Solidarity Committee.

roy

Tues. April 5th 6:30 pm Rainbow Bookstore Cooperative (426 W. Gilman St.)  Solidarity Unionism: a Fresh Take on How Workers Can Actually Win! Third Session of a new Spring 2016 Discussion Series “Another World is Possible” hosted by the Madison Free Skool, the Peregrine Forum, Madison Infoshop, and the Madison IWW Social Action and Solidarity Committee.  This session is meant to be more of an open discussion than a lecture, so, please bring your ideas, or, if you’d just like to come and listen in, that’s cool, too!  For those who are interested, copies of new Solidarity Unionism zine compiled by Felix Bunke are also available at Rainbow Bookstore.   Info?  Check out the Facebook event:  https://www.facebook.com/events/1570657226583071/

 

Future dates are also available if you are interested in hosting a discussion! Come to an earlier session and let other folks know what you would like to do – the Free Skool is whatever the participants wish it to be!

 


Anarcho-Syndicalism! Fall 2015 Madison Free Skool Series – next session Wed. Dec. 2nd 6:30 pm at Rainbow Bookstore – 426 W. Gilman

cntWhat do Lucy Parsons, Noam Chomsky, and Ursula LeGuin have in common? How would a society based upon reciprocity, mutual aid, and solidarity function? Could our economy actually be managed by workers themselves? Join us for the second session of a new bi-weekly Madison Free Skool series, co-hosted by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the Peregrine Forum, and the Madison Infoshop. We’ll be reading Rudolf Rocker’s classic 1938 book, Anarcho-Syndicalism, along with discussion of other more contemporary readings and perspectives. Copies of the 2006 AK Press edition of Rocker’s book are available for purchase at Rainbow, the text is also available online at https://libcom.org/files/Rocker%20-%20Anarcho-Syndicalism%20Theory%20and%20Practice.pdf ) This class is whatever the participants wish it to be, so bring your own thoughts to stimulate the conversation! Our final class date is Dec. 16th, but we could also continue the series into the new year if there is enough interest.


Madison Print & Resist 2015!

Madison Print & Resist 2015 is a day-long festival of political print media, zines, experimental publications, and workshops related to the world of art, DIY culture, and political action. We’re looking for subversively creative print/media artists including zinesters, printers, poster-makers, and activist designers.

optimized-macdonald-dog-typewriter

Tables available include 3’ x 6’ rectangles or 5’ circles. Tables are shareable, so let us know if you require a full or ½ table. Printers and poster-makers please note that there are spaces well-suited for combination wall + table displays. If you would like such a space, please indicate this as a preference when you apply. There is no fee, but we will ask for a 5% commission on any sales, with all proceeds going toward future event costs.

To apply for a table, please send us a description of the work — zines, posters, prints, books, etc. you intend to display. What are they about? How are they made? Do you have a philosophy or purpose? Are you a distro? Pictures, or links to images online, are preferred but not required. If you are able to bring your own table please let us know.

There will also be space for workshops (!!!), so if you’d like to propose a workshop, demonstration, skill-sharing, or presentation, please send a description of your proposal and indicate the length of time, facilities features, or A/V equipment you’d require.

Application deadline is Oct. 1st. We will get back to applicants no later than October 8th. Applications or questions may be sent by email to: madisonprintandresist@gmail.com

For more info:   http://madisonprintandresist.wordpress.com


Black Lives Matter! – the Legacy of Black Power Politics in Wisconsin

By John E. Peck

On March 6th, 2015 an unarmed black man, Tony Robinson, was shot down by Madison Police officer, Matt Kenny on the near East Side – my old neighborhood.   For days the bloody evidence of this latest episode in our nation’s sordid history of systemic racism was visible to anyone walking, biking or driving by on Williamson Street. Within hours, a memorial to Tony appeared and since then dozens of protests, marches, forums, and other actions have been organized by the Young, Gifted, and Black (YGB) Coalition. Adding insult to injury, the landlord of the apartment recently sent an eviction notice to Tony’s former roommates, along with a $1200 bill for “bio-hazard clean-up.” The Dane County District attorney, Ismael Ozanne, has yet to decide whether to press charges, but it is widely suspected nothing will happen to Kenny.

In early Feb. 2015 a couple dozen people had started gathering biweekly at Rainbow Bookstore to kick off the latest round in an ongoing Madison Free Skool series dedicated to exploring the radical roots of grassroots resistance in Midwest history.  Inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement that grew out of violent racist policing in Ferguson, New York City, and elsewhere, the goal of our discussion was to strengthen the knowledge of those now challenging white supremacy by learning about the amazing legacy of black power politics in our own state spanning back 150 years.  Tony Robinson’s murder soon came to overshadow the discussion series, and made our effort even more relevant.

How did systemic racism become so entrenched in a “liberal bastion” like Madison? Why is the largest community of color in many rural areas of Wisconsin now found inside a state prison – where inmates count as part of the electorate but can’t actually vote?   Why are there more African students than African American students at such a highly rated public school like UW-Madison? These were just some of the questions we have been tackling the last few months.

Many people do not know that in 1854 Wisconsin’s Supreme Court declared the Fugitive Slave Act “wicked and cruel” effectively defying the federal government and reflecting the rising power of the abolitionist movement and in particular popular support for the case of Joshua Glover. Glover had escaped from St. Louis in 1852 and was living as a free man in Racine when Glover’s ex-master, Benammi Garland, showed up, having already placed a newspaper ad offering a $200 reward for his lost property.   Federal Judge Andrew Miller issued a warrant for Glover’s arrest and a posse grabbed him from his home and took him to the Milwaukee Jail. Word spread like wild fire and thousands of abolitionist supporters including the Racine County Sheriff marched to the jailhouse intent on freeing Glover and arresting Federal Marshal Cotton and his cronies instead on kidnapping charges. Their attitude quickly shifted from being allies to accomplices when they took a battering ram to the jail house door, rescued Glover, and then ran a gauntlet of slave catchers to hide him in a series of farm houses near Waukesha. Glover later escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad, while many abolitionists who led the “mob” were in and out of court and prison for years as result of their felony activity.

Another often forgotten episode of black history in Wisconsin was the amazing rise to power of the KKK across the state and especially in Madison during the 1920s. The Invisible Empire dispatched organizers to every county and the capitol city proved a fertile recruiting ground since the population then was dominated by white Protestants with less than 25% being Jewish or Catholic and under 300 black residents total. The KKK front group, the Loyal Businessmen’s Association, was soon holding packed meetings at the Woodmen of the World Hall on Madison’s Main St. and even sponsored its own UW-Madison fraternity. A major goal of the Madison KKK was to “clean up” Madison’s Greenbush which was teeming with the “wrong people.” Former Police Chief, William McCormick, boasted that “pretty near all the men in the department were Klansmen” as were many elected officials, making it rather easy for Klansmen to be deputized by law enforcement agencies to harass bootleggers. After dark on Oct. 4th, 1924 nearly 2000 Klansmen marched around the Capitol and through the Greenbush in a show of strength. Grassroots resistance to the KKK’s corrupting influence steadily grew. When the KKK held a cross burning in a pasture near Waunakee, locals raised the alarm and an irate crowd of farmers chased the Klansmen away. When the KKK hosted a state-wide konklave in Madison to celebrate Labor Day in 1925, a spectator rushed a parading Klansmen, dragged him off his horse, and then managed to escape from the police.

By the late 1920s the KKK had returned largely underground, though it has reemerged many times since – often in conjunction with other white supremacist organizing efforts. For instance, during the civil rights struggle in the 1960s in Milwaukee the KKK was implicated in the fire bombing of the NAACP Youth League’s Freedom House (as police blocked fire trucks from responding) and mobilized their members to “defend” the homes of elected officials exposed for ebing proud members of the “whites only” Eagle Club. In 1992 a “hate summit” was held in Janesville, WI drawing white supremacists from across the country. In 2002 the KKK supported a rally in response to racialized violence at Milwaukee’s Sommerfest, and in 2006 Nazis and their allies held another white pride rally on the steps of the WI State Capitol How much synergy now exists between racist policing and white supremacy is unclear, though it is disturbing to see uniformed officers and costumed klansmen chatting and showing off their respective tattoos at WI protests.

Another little known fact is that housing segregation in Milwaukee is the worst in the nation (with Madison being not much better). Over 90% of Milwaukee’ growing black population has been concentrated in just a 72 block area on the north side – the inner core – thanks to restrictive covenants, red lining, and outright block busting where predatory realtors would create fear amongst white homeowners on the “blighted edge” and then cash in on the panic as they fled to the suburbs. Catholic parishes, though, are place-based, so as whites left the congregations became increasingly black, leading to the rise of a cadre of radical urban priests like Father Groppi. Similar to the struggle for recognition that Young Gifted and Black is facing today in Madison, activist black youth in Milwaukee in the 1960s were often marginalized or even ostracized from existing organizations that were more assimilationist and “friendly” with the establishment. Drawing upon a more militant philosophy of “non-violence” which allowed for self defense, the Youth Commandos became a formidable symbol of black nationalism. When the decision was made to directly challenge segregation by crossing Milwaukee’s “Mason Dixon Line” over the 16th St. Viaduct “from Africa to Poland”– it was the Commandoes – not the police – who protected the marchers from the barrage of slurs, bricks, bottles, and other racist garbage. The Milwaukee Police formed its own “goon squad” backed up by the vigilantes of the Milwaukee Citizens Council to crack down on community resistance and three people were eventually killed in subsequent “race riots” in Milwaukee. Dick Gregory noted that the strength of the Milwaukee civil rights movement was that “it was not a color but an attitude” which defined which side you were on, but those living in Milwaukee today would say the struggle is unfinished.

To conclude here’s a brief look at Wisconsin’s prison industrial complex. Wisconsin’s first inmates literally built their own prison – this was at Waupun back in 1852 – and this 19th century system of penal labor (some might call it modern day slavery – up until 1951 WI inmates had to work for free) continues well into the 21st century. These “rent an inmate” programs (for ex. Badger State Enterprises) still make quite a bit of money for the Dept. of Corrections, especially when inmate wages range from just 12 cents per hour up to a maximum of $1.46 per hour. Back in the 1970s there were less than 5,000 inmates in WI prisons, but now the figure tops 20,000 with 38% being African American. If you are black and between the ages 25 and 50 in Milwaukee there is a 40% chance you are or have been incarcerated. WI taxpayers now spend more on maintaining this bloated prison industrial complex – $1.2 billion annually – then they spend supporting the entire University of Wisconsin system! This prison pipeline program for youth of color begins with police arrest profiling and continues through the whole racialized criminal injustice process – from compelled plea bargaining and punitive sentencing to biased parole violations that send 4,000 people back into the system each year even though they have not committed a fresh crime. Others end up filling jail cells simply because they can’t afford a good lawyer or post a $500 bail. Thankfully there are many prison abolitionist groups working to change this lock ‘em up and throw away the key approach such as the No Dane County Jail Working Group and Madison Organizing in Strength, Solidarity and Equality (MOSES). Believe it or not, there are alternatives to incarceration.

There were many other inspiring episodes of black power politics in Wisconsin which the Free Skool series explored – such as free black farmers homesteading in the Kickapoo in the 1850s and 1860s, as well as the Black Student Strikes from Madison to Oshkosh to Milwaukee in the 1960s and 1970s that led to the creation of multicultural studies programs.  We also discussed efforts to provide reparations for the historic survivors of racial injustice and community based strategies for nonviolent conflict resolution that don’t require police.   Of course, the real take home lesson is not to talk about about such radical history for nostalgia’s sake, but to use this knowledge to inform and empower our current organizing. One way to honor Tony Robinson, is by not letting his memory and the legacy of the others who proceeded him in this struggle for justice to simply rest in peace.

 

 

 

 

Abridged Bibliography:

 

Cooper, Zachary. Black Settlers in Rural Wisconsin. WI Historical Society. 1977.

 

Giffey, David. People’s Stories of South Madison. Part of the Decades Mural Project. 2001. http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/WI/WI-idx?type=header&id=WI.MPLPeopleStory

 

Goldberg, Robert. “The KKK in Madison 1922 – 1927.” Wisconsin Magazine of History, Autumn 1974. http://content.wisconsinhistory.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/wmh/id/32417/show/32357/rec/1

 

Harris, Richard. Growing Up Black in South Madison. Roy Tek Publishing. 2012.

 

Jackson, Ruby West and Walter T. McDonald. Finding Freedom: The Untold Story of Joshua Glover, Runaway Slave. WI Historical Society Press. 2007

 

Jones, Patrick T. The Selma of the North: Civil Rights Insurgency in Milwaukee. Harvard Univ. Press. 2009.

 

Lee, Gordon. The Ku Klux Klan in Wisconsin in the 1920s. Masters in History Paper. UW-La Crosse. Aug. 1968. http://murphylibrary.uwlax.edu/digital/wisc/LeeGordon.pdf

 

Quinn, Lois M. and & John Pawarasat. Statewide Imprisonment of Black Men in Wisconsin. UW-Milwaukee. June 2014.   http://www4.uwm.edu/eti/2014/WisconsinStudy.pdf

 

WI Council on Children and Families. Race to Equity – A Baseline Report

on the State of Racial Disparities in Dane County. WCCF. 2013. http://racetoequity.net/dev/wp-content/uploads/WCCF-R2E-Report.pdf

 

Wisconsin Dept. of Corrections (DOC). 150 Years of Inmate Work Programs. 2003.

http://content.wisconsinhistory.org/cdm/ref/collection/tp/id/30143

 

WISDOM. 11×15 Blueprint For Ending Mass Incarceration in Wisconsin. WISDOM. 2014. http://prayforjusticeinwi.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/WISDOMs-Blueprint-to-End-Mass-Incarceration-In-Wisconsin.pdf